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  • 首頁 環境時評人與自然最新動態焦點追蹤法律法規環境評價環保產業國內新聞國際新聞環境知識

    氣候變化

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    高長明:水泥工業如何應對全球氣候變化

    來源:網絡整理 人氣:次瀏覽 發布時間:2019-06-12

    生意社06月12日訊

      正確把握世界水泥協會(WCA)和全球水泥與混凝土協會(GCCA)之間的競合關系,共同應對全球氣候變化。

      世界上第一位發現“全球變暖”趨勢及其原因的是美國著名氣候學先鋒、哥倫比亞大學地質學教授Wallace Smith Broecker(1932-2018)。1975年他發表了一篇論文,最早提出了大氣中二氧化碳含量上升會導致明顯的全球變暖的理論。之后大量長期的檢測結果證明了其理論的正確性。1981-1990年,全球氣溫比100年前的上升了0.48oC,主要是大量燃燒化石燃料,使大氣中二氧化碳含量上升所致。

      2015年12月,聯合國政府間氣候變化專門委員會(IPCC)通過了《巴黎協定》,2018年10月,就控制全球溫升到2100年底,不超過工業化以前(~1880年)1.5oC可行性研究中提出的《IPCC 1.5oC特別報告》指出,目前全球氣溫較工業化前已經升高了1oC,如果不采取任何措施,任其發展,那么全球溫升達1.5oC,最早將是2030年,最遲為2052年。為了盡力守住這個1.5 oC的溫升控制值,全世界各國政府,各個領域,各行各業都必須緊急行動起來。在土地利用,能源,工農林牧漁,建筑,交通,城市,服務業等領域,全面進行“快速而深遠”的轉型。現今,電力領域的轉型正在進行,風力和太陽能發電發展較快,其他行業正在開始轉型之中。相應地,對世界水泥工業的要求是,2050年的碳排放量要比現今的削減一半。

      根據德國KARLSRUHE技術研究院(KIT)和聯合國資料,2017年,全球人為二氧化碳總排放量為366億噸,水泥工業的二氧化碳排放排放量約占總量的6.7%,24.6億噸。如果要將2100年,全球溫升控制在1.75oC以下,經過全球各領域各行業綜合核算。2018年3月,聯合國三家國際機構發布的《水泥工業低碳轉型路線圖》認為,水泥工業必須在2050年,將其二氧化碳排放總量由現今的約25億噸,削減40%~50%,降為13.5億噸左右。KIT報告和《IPCC 1.5oC特別報告》預測核算結果基本一致。顯然,這是一項艱巨的任務,需要各國水泥界的共同努力與合作才有可能完成,尤其是要發揮中國、印度、美國,以及亞歐拉中東一些水泥生產大國的積極引領作用。

      一百多年以來,實際上掌管世界水泥工業的國際機構,一直是上世紀20年代成立的Cembureau,直到1940年前后,它才有了一個中文名字,稱之為歐洲水泥局。因為,當時歐洲水泥工業最發達,年產量占世界總量的90%左右,歐洲水泥就相當于世界水泥。之后,隨著世界各國水泥工業的發展,Cembureau陸續與各國主要水泥公司建立了聯系與合作關系。這個慣例一直保持到2018年。Cembureau雖然在中文名稱里,冠有歐洲的頭銜,但事實上卻始終擔任領導或代言全世界水泥工業的職責,其他各國也無異議。

      2016年9月,由我國中國建材集團CNBM發起,在英國倫敦注冊成立了世界水泥協會WCA(World Cement Association)。中建材董事長宋志平先生擔任WCA主席。無疑,這是中國水泥工業在世界崛起的強烈信號。于是緊接著,2016年12月,全球水泥與混凝土協會GCCA(Grobal Cement and Concrete Association)相繼也在倫敦注冊成立。

      這個緊急成立的GCCA是由原先的Cembureau和世界混凝土協會兩家合并組成的,意在繼續掌管全世界的水泥和混凝土工業的話語權和領導權,目的十分明顯。試圖整合重組全世界水泥,混凝土,骨料,制品等完整的產業鏈,兩家一起集中已有的全部資源,繼續維持其世界“大佬”的地位。聘請曾任世界煤炭協會CEO近20年的Banjamin Sporton擔任新成立的全球水泥和混凝土協會GCCA的CEO。據悉這位Sporton先生不僅通曉水泥混凝土行業,還有豐富的煤炭礦業等行業的技術背景,而且還是一位減碳專家。

      隨著水泥工業低碳轉型提上議事日程,有關企業集團公司加緊部署之際,2019年初,世界水泥界最具影響力的兩家期刊,分別采訪了GCCA和WCA的高層人員,發表了詳細報道。2019年3月初,我國宋志平先生在世界銀行能源及新氣候經濟大會上也發表了演講。茲以發表時間為序,將他們三位的講話內容詳介如下,供水泥界同仁學習研究探討借鑒

      1.GCCA CEO Banjamin Sporton(2019年1月)

      *水泥混凝土行業和煤炭煤電行業一樣都面臨嚴峻的低碳轉型問題,水泥行業更甚,因為除了燃燒二氧化碳以外,它本身還有工藝二氧化碳的排放,減碳任務更繁重。

      *歐洲水泥工業的碳足跡,以1990年為基準,至今已削減了22%,在此基礎上,2050年再降低50%是有信心的,問題是全球水泥工業都削減50%,十分艱巨。  *近期1~2年,GCCA主要工作并不是急于開展具體的減碳項目,而是重點要做好全方位全產業鏈的整合重建與組織構建工作。雖然,我們歷來與聯合國能源局IEA、CSI、WBCSD等機構均有合作伙伴關系,現在要提升為更緊密的共同籌劃及實施的團隊關系,要將建筑工程,裝備制造,施工安裝,總承包商以及金融財務咨詢公司,如麥肯錫、德勤等組成一個綜合運作的有機體,探討研究制定總綱領和總體規劃,以嶄新的面目實現高效運行。

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