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  • 首頁 環境時評人與自然最新動態焦點追蹤法律法規環境評價環保產業國內新聞國際新聞環境知識

    氣候變化

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    德國應對氣候變化的政策和措施

    來源:網絡整理 人氣:次瀏覽 發布時間:2019-06-12

      德國應對氣候變化的政策和措施可分為氣候保護和適應氣候變化兩大內容。前者的核心目標是促成全球平均氣溫與工業化前相比升幅不超過2攝氏度,避免氣候變化造成不可承受的后果和風險。從中長期看,德國的目標和承諾是2020年將溫室氣體排放在1990年的基礎上降低40%。為此,須將可再生能源用于發電的占比升至30%、用于采暖的占比升至14%,能源生產效率在1990年基礎之上翻番。后者的長期目標是減少氣候變化對自然、社會和生態系統的危害,盡量維護自然、社會和生態系統,提升它們適應氣候變化的能力。德國政府認為,氣候保護和適應氣候變化是密不可分的,是一枚錢幣的兩面,是德國應對氣候變化政策的兩根支柱。

      一、氣候保護政策和措施

      近年來德國在國際舞臺上一直積極扮演著氣候保護倡導者的角色。1987年德國政府即成立首個應對氣候變化的機構——大氣層預防性保護委員會,1990年成立跨部工作組“二氧化碳減排”,1992年簽署聯合國《21世紀議程》等國際保護氣候公約,1995年在柏林舉辦世界氣候框架公約大會,1997年簽署《京都議定書》。2000年德國議會通過《國家氣候保護計劃》,2005年再行修訂,增加許多具體行動計劃。

      德政府認為氣候保護不僅為經濟可持續發展提供長期的保障,同時還會給德國經濟帶來直接的好處。目前,德國氣候保護領域從業人員180萬人,已由2004年就業人口的3.8%升至目前的4.5%。根據研究報告《對氣候友好德國進行投資》推算,德政府的減排措施至2020年會額外創造50萬個就業崗位,至2030年甚至會額外創造80萬個就業機會。德國環保技術出口以及環保相關的服務都將出現增長,每年帶動額外投資增加300億歐元,至2020年能源支出每年減少200億歐元。

      德國聯邦政府出于“應對氣候變化和維護能源安全”兩個目的,于2007年通過了“能源利用和氣候保護一攬子方案”。該方案是德國政府氣候保護政策的指導性文件,包括29項具體措施,其主要目的是提高能源效率和促成可再生能源的更廣泛的利用。在氣候保護方面,方案想要達到的最主要目標之一是2020年將溫室氣體排放在1990年的基礎上降低40%。

      方案29條措施具體為:

      1、鼓勵熱電聯產。目標是至2020年將熱電聯產發電占比翻番至總發電量的25%。主管部門為聯邦經濟部。

      2、加大可再生能源發電量。目標是至2020年將可再生能源發電量占比擴大至總發電量的25%至30%。主管部門為聯邦環境部、經濟部和交通、建設、城市規劃部。

      3、推廣低二氧化碳排放發電工藝。目標是把在示范電廠有效實施的二氧化碳分離和存儲技術推廣開來,繼續興建具有年處理10萬噸以上二氧化碳能力的分離存儲項目。主管部門為聯邦經濟部、環境部、交通部、教研部。

      4、推廣智能用電測量方法。目的是使商業用戶及私人用戶即時準確了解用電情況,以為節電之基礎。主管部門為聯邦經濟部。

      5、推廣清潔發電工藝。目標是利用先進技術水平實現氣候保護,防止污染侵入,提升公眾對新建發電設施的認可度。主管部門為聯邦環境部。

      6、引用現代能源管理系統。目的是將企業能源和用電稅收減免與企業引用現代能源管理系統相結合,借以實現產業節能潛力。主管部門為聯邦財政部。

      7、廣泛開展旨在保護氣候、提高能源效率的資助計劃。目標是在工業、家庭、農、林、商、服務業及交通領域以較低成本充分挖掘能效潛力。主管部門為聯邦環境部、經濟部、交通部、農業部。

      8、制定產品生態設計條例標準。目標是通過標準和產品能效標簽將高能效產品更廣泛引入市場。主管部門為聯邦經濟部、環境部。

      9、鼓勵沼氣輸入現有天然氣管網。目標是減輕沼氣輸入天然氣管網難度和對天氣然進口的依賴成度,促進保護氣候的能源開發。主管部門是聯邦經濟和環境部。

      10、加強節約能源條例的落實。目的是使對建筑節能的要求與技術和能源價格發展水平逐漸銜接,自2020年起新建筑取暖基本不采用化石燃料。主管部門為聯邦交通建筑部、經濟部。

      11、鼓勵對出租房屋進行旨在減輕能耗、改善能效的修繕、改造。主管部門為交通建設部、經濟部。

      12、繼續執行現行的旨在減少二氧化碳排放的建筑物修繕計劃,充分挖掘城市建筑和社會福利設施的節能潛力。主管部門為建設部、財政部、教研部、經濟部和環境部。

      13、繼續執行可節省50%一次能源消耗的社會福利設施現代化改造。主管部門為建設部。

      14、制定《可再生能源供熱法》及其他法律條例,促成可再生能源供熱比率由2005年的5.4%升至2020年的14%。主管部門為環境部和建設部。

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