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  • 首頁 環境時評人與自然最新動態焦點追蹤法律法規環境評價環保產業國內新聞國際新聞環境知識

    氣候變化

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    氣候變化《巴黎協定》簽署的意義及中國貢獻

    來源:網絡整理 人氣:次瀏覽 發布時間:2019-06-12

      氣候變化是典型的全球性問題,需要在各國通過努力達成國際合作的基礎上共同應對。在全球氣候變化治理的多重路徑中,國際氣候變化條約體系的演進至關重要。然而,自哥本哈根氣候大會以來,為達成一份在《京都議定書》承諾期滿后,具有法律拘束力并含有國家強制減排義務的氣候條約為目的的國際氣候談判卻一波三折、艱難前行。各國應對氣候變化的政治意愿基于國家利益的考量而分化變幻,依賴于京都機制的國際碳市場及其金融工具也因此徘徊低迷。在此全球氣候合作生死存亡之際,《巴黎協定》確立了2020年后全球應對氣候變化制度的總體框架,其簽署無疑具有關鍵的里程碑意義。

      一、《巴黎協定》的意義

      首先,應對氣候變化的國際合作符合全人類共同利益,也是人權保護的重要內容。地球是人類共同的家園,我們每一個人都身處其中,命運與共。2014年政府間氣候變化委員會(IPCC)發布的第五次報告再次肯定了人類活動是引起氣候變化的重要原因,氣候變化對人類社會產生負面影響,而且這種影響在不斷增強。如果任其發展,將會對人類和生態系統造成嚴重、普遍的和不可逆轉的影響。氣候變化威脅全球人類生活以及糧食與水的安全。獲得清潔的水、空氣和食物的權利,是不可剝奪的人權。因此,《巴黎協定》的簽署有利于環境權利的保護。

      其次,《巴黎協定》在簽署首日得到175國的支持,表明各國在氣候變化治理的國際合作方面達成了普遍的政治共識。盡管各國在應對氣候變化的國家能力和政治意愿方面大相徑庭,并逐漸演化成不同的氣候利益集團在國際舞臺上發聲。但不可否認各國在遏制全球變暖、減緩和適應全球氣候變化的損害、控制全球平均氣溫升幅等方面的目標是共同的,每年一度的《聯合國氣候變化框架公約》(以下簡稱《公約》)締約方大會(COP)以及《公約》體系外的各項談判,都在努力試圖消除分歧、取得共識。《巴黎協定》作為一份具有法律拘束力的國際條約,其意義在于把各國的政治共識通過法律的形式明確和固定下來,連同《公約》一起構成后京都時代國際氣候變化制度的法律基礎。

      第三,靈活務實地創造了全球治理的新范例。哥本哈根大會以來的國際氣候談判屢屢遭遇阻力的原因之一是京都機制所確立的只針對發達國家的“自上而下”的強制減排義務,一方面其減排義務分配的公平性常常受到質疑,另一方面,由于公約缺乏有效的遵約機制,發達國家的強制減排義務又無法真正得到落實。《巴黎協定》另辟蹊徑,通過國家自主決定貢獻的方式實行“自下而上”的減排義務,巧妙地回避了各國減排義務分配上的難題,也最終將劍拔弩張的“硬碰硬”沖突化解為各國自身努力的目標。

      第四,《巴黎協定》的簽署為國際碳市場注入強心劑。自哥本哈根氣候大會無果以來,《公約》下談判每每無果而終,由于遲遲不能對2020年后京都時代的氣候機制做出具有法律拘束力的制度安排,以排放權交易為核心的國際碳市場信心受挫,不僅各個排放權交易市場不活躍,其他碳金融工具也持觀望態度。作為強制性市場機制應對氣候變化的典范,歐盟排放交易機制(ETS)也經歷了碳價暴跌和波動的慘痛教訓。被譽為自愿性減排機制代表的美國芝加哥氣候交易所(CCX)最終也難逃被收購的命運。《巴黎協定》延續了京都議定書的排放交易機制,雖然具體細節仍需補充完善,但簽約首日得到175國簽署的支持,無疑釋放了積極的市場信號。可以預見,未來國際碳市場必將迎來新的發展機遇。

      二、中國貢獻

      中國在構建全球應對氣候變化的國際新秩序方面,可謂功不可沒。在國際氣候談判舞臺上,成為多邊氣候規則的積極倡導者和制定者,并在國內通過立法和政策積極行動以落實承諾,彰顯了負責任大國的軟實力和大氣度。

      首先,作為《公約》首批締約方和政府間氣候變化委員會(IPCC)發起國之一,中國政府一直積極參與和推動著氣候變化的國際談判和《公約》進程。在每一次締約方大會上,中國一直堅持《公約》所倡導的“共同但有區別原則”,強調發達國家在工業化進程中積累的歷史排放和發展中國家面臨的經濟發展的客觀需求。在巴黎氣候大會上,中國既堅守了原則,又靈活斡旋。在中國的外交努力下,《巴黎協定》最終堅持和重申了“共同但有區別”原則,有力維護了發展中國家的利益。同時,中國本著務實的精神,力主采取根據各自國情做出減排承諾的“國家自主決定貢獻”模式,避免了京都機制下強制減排義務分配帶來的尖銳矛盾。最終促成了各方都能接受的減排方案,為《巴黎協定》的順利通過和簽署奠定了基礎。

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