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  • 首頁 環境時評人與自然最新動態焦點追蹤法律法規環境評價環保產業國內新聞國際新聞環境知識

    人與自然

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    人與自然融合的山水境界(組圖)

    來源:網絡整理 人氣:次瀏覽 發布時間:2019-06-13

    簡介


      郝向炫,1957年生于山西太原,1983年畢業于山西大學藝術系中國畫專業,獲文學學士學位,1990年至1991年在湖北美術學院助教進修班研習碩士研究生課程,2002年至2003年在中央美術學院王鏞工作室做訪問學者,研習山水畫創作和做中國畫理論研究,山水畫作品多次參加全國美展,中國畫理論研究論文多篇發表于國家級學術期刊,出版多部個人畫集和學術著作。現為太原師范學院教授,太原師范學院山西省重點扶持學科美術學科帶頭人,中國美術家協會會員,山西省文聯委員,山西省中國畫學會副會長,山西省美協山水畫藝委會副會長,原山西省美協副主席。

      人與自然的融合,是山水畫的主要特征。人與自然的親和關系,早在《詩經》中就有所表現,《詩經》中愈到晚期的作品,草木鳥獸愈變成了詩人感情中悲歡離合的象征,這即是詩有六義中的比和興。在屈原的《離騷》中,則蘭、蕙、芷、蘅,更和作者的志潔行芳融合在了一起。可以說在世界文化史上,沒有任何系統的文化,在人和自然的關系上發生過像中國古代這樣的融合關系。詩六義中的“比”是以某一種自然景物,有意地與自己的境遇,也即是由境遇所引起的感情相比擬。“興”是自己內蘊的感情,偶然與自然景物相觸發,因而把內蘊的感情引發出來。人通過比興而與自然相接觸,人的主體占有很明顯的地位,所以也只賦予自然以人格化,很少將自己自然化。孔子的“仁者樂山,智者樂水”,依然是比興的意義。仁者智者依然是以仁知為其人生,而不會以山水為其人生,更不會在山水中求得人生的安頓。


      人與自然的真正融合是在莊子的思想影響下完成的。莊子對世俗感到沉濁而要求超越于世俗之上的思想,是在不知不覺中使人要求超越人間世俗的同時而歸向了自然,繼而變為主動地去追求自然。莊子的物化精神,可賦予自然以人格化,亦可賦予人格以自然化,使人進一步想在自然中——山水中,安頓自己的生命。《世說新語》中有這樣一個故事:“道壹道人好整飾音辭。從都下還東山,經吳中。已而會雪下未甚寒。諸道人問在道所經。壹公曰,風霜固所不論,乃先集其慘澹。郊邑正自飄瞥,林岫便已皓然。”這里對自然的品藻,也和魏晉當時對人的品藻一樣,要用一番美的意識的反省,以求在直觀的第一自然中發現出第二自然。在魏晉以前,山水與人的感情相融,不一定是出于以山水為美的對象來滿足對美的要求。但到魏晉時代,以山水為美的對象追求美,則成為追尋者的自覺。這種美是超越世俗之上的美,是受魏晉玄學影響下的美。《世說新語》中“孫綽《庾亮碑文》曰,公雅好所托,常在塵垢之外……方寸湛然,固以玄對山水。”其“以玄對山水”即是以超越世俗之上的虛靜之心對山水。此時的山水是純凈的自然,與人的虛靜之心靈相融,與人的生命融為一體。人與自然由相化而相忘,因而在第一自然中呈現出了第二自然,成為中國繪畫藝術精神審美的主要特征,同時亦使山水畫成為中國畫壇的主流。

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